The summaries designed
to insure that you have reviewed the PowerPoint presentations carefully and thought about the important
points and critical issues.
All of the summaries and reflections will have the same format and include two sections: Part 1 - a
simple list of important points and critical issues that we have covered in each of the subject or geographic
areas, much like the table of contents of a book, an outline of a book chapter, or a list of key statements from
each of the sections covered in one or more PowerPoint slides of each presentation, and Part 2 - your
reflection or comments on each topic, or one or more selected elements of each topic. The first part clearly
represents a brief overview of each topic. The second part is designed to show that you have seriously thought
about some of the important points and critical issues and to demonstrate your thoughtful reactions or
For your commentary or reflection on Europe (Part 2), please focus on one important aspect of Europe:
the major drives/motivations for the creation of the European Union, its history and current status, the
challenges for keeping it functioning effectively, and its possible future.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are located
primarily in Europe. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht Treaty—whose main
architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand—came into force on November 1, 1993. Most of the
countries in Europe are members of the Europe Union. More countries have applied to join. On February 1,
2020, the United Kingdom left the European Union.
The European Union is a much looser, more recent and much more complex federation than the
United States of America. Of the 27 EU member states, 22 participate in the Schengen Area. Within the
Schengen Area, all the states have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their
mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for international travel purposes, with a
common visa policy. The area is named after the 1985 Schengen Agreement signed in Schengen, Luxembourg.
Of the five EU members that are not part of the Schengen Area, four—Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, and
Romania—are legally obliged to join the area in the future, while the other one—Ireland—maintains an optout. The four European Free Trade Association (EFTA) member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and
Switzerland, are not members of the EU, but have signed agreements in association with the Schengen
Agreement. Three European microstates that are not members of the European Union but which are enclaves
or semi-enclave within an EU member state—Monaco, San Marino, and Vatican City—are de facto part of the
Schengen Area. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of
19 EU member states which use the euro currency.
Part 1 (simple list of important points and critical issues) should be about one-page long. Part 2 (your
commentary or reflection) should be about two pages (definitely not less than one full page or more than
three pages (double space and 12 point size).