# Optical Interconnects

1) Propose a design for a 10 Tb/s interconnect operating over a 2 km transmission distance.

Include in your description the technologies for the transmitter, link and receiver, specifying the purpose of any optical or electronic devices and circuits used.

Estimate the amount of energy lost in each component.

Identify two optical innovations which could enable logic-to-logic energy use of 1 pJ/bit.

For each innovation, using diagrams, graphs or otherwise,

a) explain the operating principle, and quantify the energy saving

b) elaborate the research and development challenges

Discuss the technology challenges involved in creating manufactural interconnects. Consider both costs for production and also user costs in your answer

2) Based on the reference below ( ref 1)

a) Report the equations of the number of servers, number of switches, and number of links as a function of the switch radix for the following DCN and HPC architecture:

• Fat-Tree

• Clos

• BCube

• DCell

b) Calculate the number of switches and the overall costs (costs of the switches and links) for each architecture assuming:

• Number of servers around [url removed, login to view]

• Cost 10 Gbps links = 120 \$

• Cost 10Gbps / port of the switch = 20 \$

c) Discuss and compare the costs and the latency of each architecture, assuming that the cut-through latency contribution of one switch is 600 ns

Reference [1]: [url removed, login to view] ( Y. Liu et al, “A Survey of Data Center Network Architectures )

3) Explain the differences in functional capability for optical and electrical switching technology when used in communication systems.

Identify the potential advantages, disadvantages and challenges using optical switches. A good answer will address traffic patterns, latency, throughput, control planes, synchronisation and buffering.

b) Using an example from the scientific literature, or otherwise, propose an optical interconnection network to enable optical packet-level connectivity between 100 server clusters. Estimate the physical size, bandwidth, and energy requirements.

It has to be done by 25th night by latest! No later than that!

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